Paper sailboat

The floating model of the sailing boat is made of heavy paper, best of all drawing.

For the hull of the boat, a sheet of paper of 17×100 centimeters is cut off, folded in half and graphed into cells with sides equal to 1 centimeter. Cells are used to draw the contours of the boat’s hull, mark the lines of bending and punctures. Excess pieces of paper are cut off along the edges. Punctures make the tip of the knife.

Then the body is bent along dotted lines, as shown in Figure 135, and in four places bound with paper wedges. They are cut out of pieces of paper 3×2 centimeters in size. The folded wedges are cut into a slot, pulled out, the ends are folded up and cut short with scissors.

At the stern, two similar wedges strengthen the seat. It is marked by cells and cut out of a piece of paper 7×4 centimeters in size. The edges of the seat on both sides bend and wrap around the curved corners of the stern.

A crossbar is placed in the middle of the boat – a jar. It is made of a strip of paper, folded three times. In the center of the jar, a 1 centimeter long slot is made. The narrow edges of the strip are folded down and wedged to the sides of the boat.

In the slot of the cans insert a mast – a triple folded strip of paper with sharpened edges. The lower end of the paper rests on the bottom of the boat.

According to the drawing, the sail is cut out, its corners are slightly rounded off. The upper hole of the sail is put on the mast, bend it, the protrusions of the lower part are attached with wedges to the curved strips on the stern.

It is advisable to cover the boat with oil or nitro lacquer, drying oil or nitro paint. A layer of sand or fine pebbles is poured onto the bottom of the boat to allow the hull to sink into the water to about half. Above this layer of ballast can be covered with paper. On the sides, at the level of immersion in the water, conduct a waterline.

The design of such a boat is developed for the first time in the ship-making laboratory of the Moscow City Pioneers’ House.

Contour models of ships

On a sheet of paper, graffled into cells with sides of 1 centimeter, draw the contours of the ships, as shown in Figure 136. The drawing is transferred to plywood and sawn along the contours with a jigsaw.

In the same way, the plywood is transferred to the plywood and the base of the model with holes for fixing the body is sawn out. It is better to make the base from plywood thicker or from a thin plate.

The rib of the lower edge of the contour is lubricated with casein glue and inserted with protrusions into the base holes. For strength, the contour and base can also be bonded together with strips glued along the contour on both sides.

The whole model – body and base – is painted two or three times with oil or nitrocolour after thorough cleaning; the contour and the upper side of the base are gray, the ribs and the bottom of the base are red or black. On the model of the cruiser, the muzzle of the guns is made of wire.

The contour model can be made self-propelled. To do this, you need to install a steering wheel, propeller and rubber motor at the bottom of the base. Dimensions and methods of their connections are shown in Figure 137.

The steering wheel is cut out of tin. One end of it is rounded off, the other is bent into a tube by a nail. It is desirable to disappear the seam of the tube.

The nail is hammered into the base of the model at the stern, putting a tin washer or glass bead on top of it.

Slightly retreating from the handlebar, a propeller holder is attached to the base with small nails. The holder is bent out of a tin strip cut out according to the pattern. In the middle fold put a temporary nail to get a tube for the shaft. The adjacent sides of the holder solder to each other. Nail holes are punched in the right-angled ends. It is possible to make a holder and a wooden one: to cut out a block and drill or burn a hole in it for a shaft. The pad is glued to the base of the model with casein glue.

The propeller is made of wire or paperclip. A two-blade propeller is cut out of tin. In its center it is punched through a hole for the shaft, and the blades bend – unfolded about 45 °. At the end of the shaft, put on a glass bead or two tin washers and then a screw. The tip of the shaft is bent at right angles and soldered to the screw. The loose end of the shaft is threaded into the tube holder and bent with the hook.

Slightly stepping away from the nose of the model, the second holder is nailed to the crown. It is made in the same way as the first one, only in smaller sizes. This holder is fitted with a bent wire handle.

The motor is made of several rubber yarns: for example, four yarns of 1×1 millimeter section or two ribbons of 2×1 millimeter section. The length of the motor is equal to the distance between the hooks of the propeller shaft and the crown. The ends of the threads are bent and tied with threads to produce loops. These loops are put on the motor hooks.

To start the model, the crown is pulled forward and made about 150 revolutions in one direction. Then, holding the screw with your hand, the handle is released. It is drawn by rubber to the holder and locked. The model is placed on the water, freeing the screw. The direction of travel is adjusted by setting the handlebar accordingly.

The same device of rubber motor, propeller and steering wheel is used on other floating models. It is possible to do without the crown if the propeller is carried out behind the stern and rotated by hand to start the motor.

Glider with a rubber motor

The glider model with rubber motor is built mainly of thin plywood, best of all millimeter. The glider slides on the water surface, almost without sinking into it. The lighter the model, the better it moves.

The deck, the bottom and two sides of the model are marked and sawn out of thin plywood by a grid with the side of each cell equal to 1 centimeter.

The bottom of the glider is uneven, it has a scarp – redan. Therefore, the bottom of the model consists not of one, but of two plates.

From the plywood or board with a thickness of about 5 millimeters, the transverse partition – cords – and the seat are cut out, and from the three-layer plywood – two pegs for fixing the screw bearing.

A 10 mm thick linden bar is used to cut out the rear side – stern. One side of it is compassionate on a cone so that the top edge turns out to be 5 millimeters thick. From the birch cut out the nose of the triangular section of 5 × 5 millimeters. If possible, it is better to cut it out of linden, but it is also suitable for pine trees.

Details of the model are connected with small nails and glue. When assembling the parts of the model, if necessary, some of them are trimmed, adjusting so that they fit together tightly.

Attach the peg to the bottom of the nose of the model with the narrow end. At the front, wide edge of the stern part of the bottom of the model is installed a transverse partition (cords), and at the rear edge – the stern edge, long side down. From below under the robe across the bottom and at the edge of it strengthen the bar section of 14 × 5 millimeters. This block forms a projection at the bottom of the model.

Along the longitudinal edges of both parts of the bottom strengthen the laths with a cross section of 5 × 5 millimeters. The nose laths need to be bent in the shape of the nose.

The rear end of the bow of the bottom is connected to the stern, attaching it to a cross bar (ledge).

Then set the boards, attaching them to the bow boss, laths, bends and stern board. At the stern, screw props are attached to the sides. The deck is laid from above. The seat is fixed in the slot.

The finished hull is painted two or three times with oil, enamel or nitro paint, and the joints are pre-coated. It is better to paint the bottom and bottom of the boards with blue or red paint, the deck and the upper part of the boards with white or light blue paint.

A screw bearing boss is fixed between the upper ends of the push-pull props by drilling a longitudinal through hole in it. The sides of the motor bearing are fastened to the nose of the model by hammering into the nose plug.

The motor is made of 8-10 rubber threads with a cross section of 2×2 millimeters or 1×4 millimeters. The ends of the threads tie a loop and put on hooks.

When installing the screw and motor, make sure that the screw axis is in line with the motor. This can be achieved by fitting the bearing accordingly.

It remains to be attached to the steering wheel glider. It can be made stationary by cutting out the plywood and attaching it to the stern by means of corner strips. In this case, the glider will only move in a straight line. But it is better to cut the handlebars out of tin and fasten them to the wire bracket. The handlebar is cut at an angle so that it is tight against the push-pull props.

The air screw is trim with a knife from a 15 mm thick plate. To make a screw, see page 260.

Put the screw on the wire axis. The end of the screw is sharpened, bent in the shape of a letter “D” and hammered into the middle part (hub) of the screw. On the other side of the screw, a glass bead or two tin washers are placed on the axis. The axis is inserted into the bearing bore and the rubber hook is bent at the end. A second wire hook is hammered into the stern edge.

Pods, bearing and wooden steering wheel are painted to match the colour of the model.

To wind the engine by hand rotate the screw, making up to 300 revolutions. The model is placed on the water surface, holding the screw, and then released.

This model can be built by pupils of 5 classes, who already have some experience in making models. The design of the glider is simplified, if the bottom is even, without a projection.

Submarine

The fifth-graders can make another interesting model – a submarine. The design of this model was developed by the Central Marine Modeling Laboratory of DO SAAF of the USSR.

The templates of the boat’s hull are cut out of thick paper or thin cardboard: “side view” and “top view” (deck). For this purpose, a sheet of paper measuring 30×8 centimeters is graffled into squares with sides equal to 1 centimeter. The templates shown in Figure 139 (2) are drawn over the grid and cut out. On the cut out templates the numbered cross lines are marked, and on the template “top view” – also internal longitudinal lines (they are the border of the deck).

Five other templates are cut out of thick cardboard or thin plywood to process the hull surface. These templates are shown in Figure 140 (7) in full size. These are the types of templates that need to be made. Each template is numbered.

The hull of the boat is cut out of a bar of dry wood (linden is the best, but it is also possible to cut out pines or aspens) with the length of 280 millimeters, height of 25 millimeters and width of 21 millimeters. Side by side, the block is covered with a pencil case template “side view” on both sides, and a top and bottom case template “top view” on top and bottom. The block is cut with a cutter and a knife along the contours of the templates.

Then, the template “top view” is cut off along the lines of the deck. The rest of the template (deck) is again applied to the upper side of the bar and circled in pencil. Numbered cross lines are also marked on all sides of the bar.

Now the hull has to be treated with a sharp knife – the sides have to be rounded off. They should have such a shape as cut-outs in numbered templates. The hull starts to be processed from the middle, where cross line 3 is marked. Template number 3 is used in this case. The body shall be cut off so that template #3 fits snugly into it on line 3. The top tab of the template shall rest on the deck.

Then the hull shall be cut off in the same way on both sides up to lines 2 and 4, applying templates #2 and #4 here. The numbers used to identify the lines correspond to the numbers of the templates. After processing the case on the templates number 1 and 5, the remaining ends are cut to the figure. The finished body is cleaned with a file and skin, and then painted once or twice with oil or nitro paint.

Vertical and horizontal rudders, propeller and shaft bracket are cut out of tin, and rudder axes, propeller shaft (without bending the hook on it yet) and hooks for a rubber motor are made of wire with thickness of millimeter or slightly more. These details are shown in figure 140 in full size. Place them on the model body as shown in Figure 139.

Side of the body near the nose and stern is pierced or pierced through holes into which the horizontal rudder axes are inserted. They must rotate tightly. The rudders are soldered to the protruding ends of the axles. On the stern part of the body to the bottom of the small nails nailed to the bracket, bent from a strip of tin as shown in Figure 140 (8).

The propeller blades bend at an angle of about 40°. A hole is punched in the center of the screw, and the screw is placed on the end of the propeller shaft and soldered with this hole. Then a glass bead is placed on the shaft and inserted into the bracket. The bead should fit between the screw and the bracket. The other end of the shaft is bent with a hook. It will then be fitted with a rubber motor. The second hook for the rubber motor is fastened in a puncture made by an awl in the nose of the body. A puncture with the tip of a knife is made in the stern and a vertical steering wheel is inserted here.

A wooden bar is cut out of the wooden bar according to the figure 139 and strengthened on the deck. The periscope is represented by a piece of wire.

To prevent the model from turning over in the water, it is fixed in the bottom of the ballast – a plate of lead (approximate size of 75×4×2 mm) or other metal. The plate is first tied to the bottom with threads. The model is put on water. It should be immersed in water to the deck, the bow and stern should be at the same level. Ballastes are reduced and increased, and moved back and forth until the model is held in position on the water. After that, a slot is made in the bottom of the case, the selected metal plate is tightly inserted into it and fastened with carnations.

The finished model is painted again: the deck and the cabin are painted blue or light grey, and the underwater part is painted black.

The motor is made of 1×3 or 1×4 millimetre rubber band hull length. The ends of the tape are tied with loops and put on hooks. To start the motor, it is removed from the front hook, pulled approximately twice and twisted 350-400 revolutions: one of the mugs holds the model in his hands, holding the screw, and the other twists the motor. It is more convenient to do it by means of the handle represented in figure 140 (10). Then the motor is put on the hook again, the model is put on water and released the screw. The model will float. If you preliminarily tilt forward by 5-8 ° nose horizontal rudders, the model will sink into the water and float again to the surface when the rubber motor unwinds. Slightly bending aside the vertical steering wheel, adjust the direction of movement of the model. The immersion of the model is explained by the fact that its specific weight is close to the specific weight of water, and the movement due to the rotation of horizontal rudders is directed downwards at an angle. As soon as the engine stops working, the model’s movement and, consequently, the operation of the rudders stops. The model, made mainly of wood, emerges.

In the conversation it is necessary to acquaint the members of the mug with the way real submarines dive and float, as well as with the engines they are equipped with.